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Find man pages

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While they're not all well-advertised, there are actually a variety of means of getting help under Unix. Man pages correspond to online manuals for programs, file formats, functions, system calls, and so forth. If you've never read one before, the best way to start is by typing 'man man ' at the command line. Of course, while man pages are a vast improvement over the online documentation of most other OSes, they suffer from many failings: some people don't like to read text on the screen not very helpful unless you already know what to look for not always accessible even when present not always present, especially under Linux frequently hard to read, as they try to be authoritative and are therefore often too technical for new users frequently out of date That said, they're still better and more comprehensive than the alternatives. We'll try to address the first three failings in this document.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: ARCHER Screencast: Finding help and documentation from the command line (man pages etc.)

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linux Video Man Pages - find

find(1) [v7 man page]

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Want to link to this manual page? Skip site navigation 1 Skip section navigation 2 Header And Logo. Peripheral Links. Donate to FreeBSD. The options are as follows: -E Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex pri- maries as extended modern regular expressions rather than basic regular expressions BRE's.

If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type will be for the link itself. File information of all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. If the referenced file does not ex- ist, the file information and type will be for the link itself.

This option is equivalent to the deprecated -follow primary. This is the default. If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by xargs 1 , a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error, and the file is skipped.

However, you may wish to consider the -print0 primary in conjunc- tion with " xargs -0 " as an effective alternative. This option is equivalent to the deprecated -xdev primary. A preceding plus sign means "more than n", a preceding minus sign means "less than n" and nei- ther means "exactly n". If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the difference between the time of a file's inode creation and the time find was started is exactly n units.

Please refer to the -atime primary description for information on supported time units. See acl 3 for more information. If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was started is exactly n units. Possible time units are as fol- lows: s second m minute 60 seconds h hour 60 minutes d day 24 hours w week 7 days Any number of units may be combined in one -atime argument, for example, "-atime -1h30m".

If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the difference between the time of last change of file status infor- mation and the time find was started is exactly n units. Please refer to the -atime primary description for information on sup- ported time units. Always returns true. This executes from the current working directory as find recurses down the tree. Depth-first traversal processing is implied by this op- tion. The -delete primary will fail to delete a directory if it is not empty.

Following symlinks is incompatible with this op- tion. Cause find to perform a depth-first traversal, i. By default, find visits directories in pre-order, i. Note, the default is not a breadth-first traversal. The -depth primary can be useful when find is used with cpio 1 to process files that are contained in directories with unusual permissions.

It ensures that you have write permission while you are placing files in a directory, then sets the directory's per- missions as the last thing. Optional arguments may be passed to the utility. The expression must be terminated by a semicolon ";". If you invoke find from a shell you may need to quote the semicolon if the shell would otherwise treat it as a control operator.

Utility will be executed from the directory from which find was executed. Utility and arguments are not subject to the further expansion of shell patterns and constructs. This behaviour is similar to that of xargs 1.

The primary always returns true; if at least one invocation of utility returns a non-zero exit status, find will return a non-zero exit status. Those with the "no" prefix except "nodump" are said to be notflags.

Flags in flags are checked to be set, and flags in notflags are checked to be not set. Note that this is different from -perm , which only allows the user to specify mode bits that are set. If flags are preceded by a dash "-" , this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in flags and none of the bits in notflags are set in the file's flags bits. Otherwise, this primary evaluates to true if the bits in flags exactly match the file's flags bits, and none of the flags bits match those of notflags.

The lsvfs 1 command can be used to find out the types of file sys- tems that are available on the system. In addition, there are two pseudo-types, "local" and "rdonly". The former matches any file system physically mounted on the system where the find is being executed and the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only. GNU find imposes a restriction that gname is numeric, while find does not.

If gname is numeric and there is no such group name, then gname is treated as a group ID. This option does not affect errors occurring on starting points. This is a GNU find extension. Note that this only matches broken sym- bolic links if symbolic links are being followed. The following information for the current file is written to standard output: its inode number, size in byte blocks, file permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification time, and pathname.

If the file is a block or character special file, the device number will be displayed instead of the size in bytes. The format is identical to that produced by " ls -dgils ". If any -maxdepth primary is specified, it ap- plies to the entire expression even if it would not normally be evaluated. If any -mindepth primary is specified, it applies to the entire expression even if it would not normally be evaluated. If units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was started is exactly n units.

Note that -newermm is equivalent to -newer. This is default be- haviour. In GNU find it dis- ables an optimization not relevant to find , so it is ignored. If the mode is symbolic, a starting value of zero is as- sumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to the process' file mode creation mask.

If the mode is preceded by a dash "-" , this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the file's mode bits. Otherwise, this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file's mode bits. Note, the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash "-". It prints the pathname of the current file to standard output. If none of -exec , -ls , -print0 , or -ok is specified, the given expression shall be ef- fectively replaced by given expression -print.

It causes find to not de- scend into the current file. Note, the -prune primary has no ef- fect if the -d option was specified. To match a file named ". If the command option -L is specified, it is also true if the file is a symbolic link and points to name. If n is followed by a c , then the primary is true if the file's size is n bytes characters.

Similarly if n is followed by a scale indicator then the file's size is compared to n scaled as: k kilobytes bytes M megabytes kilobytes G gigabytes megabytes T terabytes gigabytes P petabytes terabytes -sparse True if the current file is sparse, i.

This might also match files that have been compressed by the filesystem. Possible file types are as follows: b block special c character special d directory f regular file l symbolic link p FIFO s socket -uid uname The same thing as -user uname for compatibility with GNU find.

GNU find imposes a restriction that uname is numeric, while find does not. If uname is numeric and there is no such user name, then uname is treated as a user ID. The opera- tors are listed in order of decreasing precedence. It evaluates to true if the ex- pression is false. As it is implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified. The expression evaluates to true if both expressions are true.

The second expression is not evaluated if the first expression is false. The expression evaluates to true if either the first or the second expression is true. The second expression is not evaluated if the first ex- pression is true. All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find. Primaries which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate ar- gument to find. Historically, the -d , -L and -x options were implemented using the pri- maries -depth , -follow , and -xdev.

These primaries always evaluated to true. As they were really global variables that took effect before the traversal began, some legal expressions could have unexpected results. An example is the expression -print -o -depth.

As -print always evalu- ates to true, the standard order of evaluation implies that -depth would never be evaluated. This is not the case. The operator -or was implemented as -o , and the operator -and was imple- mented as -a.

This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears. The -E option was inspired by the equivalent grep 1 and sed 1 options. BUGS The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs. As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression , it is difficult to specify files named -xdev or!

These problems are handled by the -f option and the getopt 3 " -- " con- struct. The -delete primary does not interact well with other options that cause the file system tree traversal options to be changed. The -mindepth and -maxdepth primaries are actually global options as documented above.

Master the command line: How to use man pages

Want to link to this manual page? Skip site navigation 1 Skip section navigation 2 Header And Logo. Peripheral Links. Donate to FreeBSD. The options are as follows: -E Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex pri- maries as extended modern regular expressions rather than basic regular expressions BRE's.

In the absence of an expression, -print is assumed. If an expression is given, but none of the primaries -delete , -exec , -execdir , -ls , -ok , -print , or -print0 are specified, the given expression is effectively replaced by given expression -print. It is not an error to specify more than one of the mutually exclusive options -H and -L.

Search a folder hierarchy for filename s that meet a desired criteria: Name, Size, File Type - see examples. GNU find searches the directory tree rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given expression from left to right, according to the rules of precedence see Operators , until the outcome is known the left hand side is false for AND operations, true for OR , at which point find moves on to the next file name. The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links. That argument and any following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched for. If no paths are given, the current directory is used.

find(1) - Linux man page

The find utility recursively descends the directory hierarchy for each path seeking files that match a Boolean expression written in the primaries specified below. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type is for the link itself. File information for all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link itself. Causes the file information and file type evaluated for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, and not the link itself. Specifying more than one of the mutually-exclusive options -H and -L is not considered an error. The last option specified determines the behavior of the utility. The first argument that starts with a - , or is a! True if the file was accessed n days ago. The access time of directories in path is changed by find itself.

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By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy , Privacy Policy , and our Terms of Service. It only takes a minute to sign up. Pay attention to the section number: Suppose you want help on printf. The bash version of printf is in section 1, the C version is in section 3 or 3C.

Command line users are undoubtedly familiar with man pages, or manual pages, that contain details, help , and documentation to specified commands and functions. Referencing a man page can be essential when trying to learn proper syntax or how a command works, but with how large some manual pages are it can be a real drag to scroll through the entire man page to try and find a relevant portion.

Is it some kind of arcane knowledge, handed down only to initiates after grueling initiations? Well, no. Actually, anyone can learn about Terminal commands, if they know where to look.

How to Search Man Pages at the Command Line

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Linux Commands Tutorial - Man pages, apropos & locate

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Dec 19, - over the ssh session. How do I search all the man pages for a particular command at Linux shell prompt? You need to use the following commands to search man pages: How do I find a Unix / Linux command? How do I.

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